Types of Fire Alarm BS5839 Pt1
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BS5839: Part 1 & 2002
This section must be read and understood by all parties involved in the design, installations, commissioning, acceptance and maintenance of the Fire Alarm System.
Category M Systems
With manual call points and no automatic fire detectors.
Category L Systems
These systems have automatic fire detection and are intended for the protection of life.
They are further subdivided into:
A system installed throughout all areas of the building with the objective being to offer the earliest possible warning of a fire, achieving the longest available time for escape.
A system installed only in defined parts of the building. An L2 system should include the coverage necessary to satisfy the recommendations of Category L3.
The objective of a Category L2 system is identical to that of a Category L3 system, with the additional objective of affording early warning of fire in specified areas of high fire hazard level and/or high fire risk.
A system designed to give a warning of fire at an early enough stage to enable all occupants, other than possibly those in the room of fire origin, to escape safely, before the escape routes are impassable owing to the presence of fire, smoke or toxic gases.
NB To achieve this objective it will normally be necessary to install detectors in rooms which open on to any escape route (see clause 8.2).
A system installed within those parts of the escape routes comprising circulation areas and circulation spaces, such as corridors and stairways.
The objective of a Category L4 system is to enhance the safety of occupants by providing warning of smoke within escape routes.
NB The installation of detectors in additional areas is not precluded, and the system could then still be regarded as a Category L4 system.
A system in which the protected areas or the location of detectors is designed to satisfy a specific fire safety objective that is other than Category L1, L2, L3 or L4)
The design is often based on a fire risk assessment that forms part of a fire engineering solution.
Fire Protection could be provided to cover a risk not covered in the normal guidance or as a part of the operating system for a fire protection system.
Such a system could be as simple as a single automatic fire detector in one room (in which outbreak of fire would create undue risk to occupants, either in the room or elsewhere in the building), but could comprise comprehensive detection throughout larger areas of a building in which, for example, structural fire resistance is less than that normally specified for buildings of that type.
Category P Systems
These are automatic fire detection systems intended for the protection of property. They are further subdivided into:
A system installed throughout a building. The objective of a P1 system is to offer the earliest possible warning of fire so as to minimize the time between ignition and the arrival of the fire brigade.
A system installed only in defined parts of a building. The objective of a P2 system is to provide early warning of fire in areas of high fire hazard level, or areas in which the risk to property or business continuity from fire is high. This could be as few as one room, or as extensive as, for example, complete floors of the building.
Selecting a Category
If a system is intended to fulfill the objectives of more than one Category of system, the system would need to comply with the recommendations for each of the categories.
A system that's purpose is to provide property protection throughout the building (P1 system) might not need to give an alarm signal of sufficient audibility to rouse all occupants who might sleep in the building.
If the system is also to be installed for the purpose of life safety (L system), sufficient fire alarm sounders would then need to be fitted to rouse sleeping occupants.
Annex A of the standard provides information on the Categories of systems that are typically installed in various types of premises.
The Category of system to be installed always needs to be included in any specification.
Any Category other than L1 or P1 will need to include details of the areas of the premises that are to be protected.
There may well be little distinction between a P1 system with variations and a P2 system in which case, either description could be used. Therefore the system Category needs to be regarded as a shorthand form of description, rather than a rigid form of prescription.
Where a choice exists, the description needs to be based on the specified objective of the alarm system.
The following recommendations are applicable.
1. Any statutory requirements imposed by enforcing authorities, and any requirements imposed by property insurers, should clearly state the Category of system required.
2. The purchaser of the system or their agent should inform the designer of the system Category required.
3. If the designer is not informed as to the Category required, the designer should make clear, to the purchaser or his agent, the Category of system that is proposed, prior to an order for the system being placed.
4. In each of the situations described above, the description of the system should be further amplified by adequate information on the areas of the building that are to be protected, except in the case of a L1 or P1 system.
5. L1, L2, L3 and L4 systems should also satisfy the recommendations of the standard for an M system.
6. Where the recommendations of this standard for an M system are to be satisfied in conjunction with the recommendations for a P1, P2 or L5 system, the combined system should be described as a Category P1/M, P2/M or L5/M system respectively.
7. Where the objectives of more than one type of system are to be satisfied, the system should be described as for example L2/P2 or L3/P2.
8. The system design certificate should state the Category of system that has been designed and should, except in the case of a M, L1 or P1 system, provide a brief description of the areas of the building that are protected by the system.
Information Exchange and definition of responsibilities
The purpose of a fire alarm system is to support the fire safety strategy for the building. It is, important that system design supports the required fire evacuation procedures, rather than those procedures being designed around a pre-determined system design. To a large extent, the design of the fire alarm system will depend on the actions required after the alarm has been given.
Additional care is required in the case of a fire system that is to be a two or more staged evacuation alarm.
If the premises to be protected contains alarms on equipment that give warning for reasons other than fire, the various alarms should be properly co-ordinated and be distinct from each other.
In these premises, the alarm priorities should be carefully assessed, and the system arranged so that the highest priority alarm cannot be prevented or obscured by one of a lower priority. In general, fire will have the highest priority, but there are buildings in which other hazards may have higher priorities than fire.
The alarm system requirements, including those imposed by the evacuation procedures, the layout of the building, and the buildings use, should be ascertained as accurately as possible by consultation between the user or purchaser and other interested parties, such as the enforcing authority or fire insurer.
Consultation should take place between the user or purchaser and the system designer. In a small, simple building, the extent of the consultation necessary may be minimal. It is not unusual for the purchaser to have little knowledge of fire safety principles, and system design may involve little more than determining the suitable locations of manual call points and fire alarm devices. In complex premises, there will be a need for extensive consultation between the user or purchaser, the system designer and, if involved, specialist consultants.
The design can be undertaken by the supplier, installer, representatives of the user or purchaser (including consultants), or any combination of these parties. It is preferable at the contract stage that a single organization should take responsibility for the design, the installation work, including compliance with the design, and the commissioning of the system. Any two or all three, of these parties may take the form of one single organization. The responsibility for each of the three stages should be clearly defined and documented.
It's essential that, at the design stage, avoidance of potential false alarms is considered as well as the effectiveness of the system to give a warning in the event of fire (section 3)
The user or purchaser of the system or their representative should ensure that, to the appropriate extent, there is consultation at, or prior to, the system design stage with all relevant interested parties within the following list:
The enforcing authority for fire safety legislation
E.g. Building control authority,
Health and Safety Executive,
The Property Insurer.
NB: Any variations from the recommendations of BS 5839 that are proposed, should be agreed with all the relevant parties.
These consultations may be undertaken by parties, such as the designer or consultants, acting on behalf of the user or purchaser.
If none of the above are considered to be an interested party, advice is available from enforcing authorities and, in the case of Category P systems, the property's insurers.
The designer of the system should ensure that at the design stage there is consultation with all relevant interested parties within the following list:
The user or purchaser,
Consultants such as architects, mechanical and electrical specialists and fire engineers.
The installer of the system should ensure that appropriate consultation takes place with all interested parties from the following list:
The user or purchaser
The system supplier
Consultants such as architects, mechanical and electrical specialists and fire engineers.
Before the system is ordered, the responsibility for each of the following stages should be clearly documented and defined.
When a fire detection and alarm system is integrated with a voice alarm system, one organization should be responsible for the entire system.
When a fire detection alarm system is interfaced with another system or facility such as a fire extinguishing system, smoke control system or lift grounding facility that is the responsibility of an organization other than the installer of the fire detection alarm system, the responsibility of each organization should be clearly defined before an order is placed for the fire detection alarm system.
Variations from the Standard
This part of BS 5839 is a code of practice.
Its contents are in the form of recommendations, rather than requirements.
The recommendations are based on good practice for the design, commissioning and maintenance of fire detection and fire alarm systems that should be suitable for the majority of normal applications.
There will be some applications where the recommendations may be unsuitable and could lead to alarm systems that would be unnecessarily expensive with measures that could not be regarded at cost-effective, or that could be difficult to install. In extreme cases, the recommendations might even be inadequate to provide the appropriate level of fire protection.
Under these circumstances, variations from the recommendations may become necessary, even though, generally, the user/purchaser, enforcing authority or insurer requires quite strict compliance with the standard.
Variations were described as "deviations" in BS5839 Part 1 1988.
This term then implied there were shortcomings or errors in the design, when really, the term referred to parts of a design that were considered appropriate and intentional, although not compliant with one or more recommendations of the standard.
This does not mean that the designer or installer should have the freedom to ignore the recommendations due to circumstances in which a user, purchaser, enforcing authority or insurer seeks compliance with it. Variations should always be the subject of specific agreement amongst all interested parties and should be clearly identified in all relevant system documentation.
Variations may arise due to a fire risk assessment, in which it was determined, for example, that a section of the building may be unprotected by automatic fire detection, when normally that Category of system would require the detection to meet that standard.
Other variations could be based, for example, on the engineering judgement of a competent person, who may consider that the extent of protection that could be disabled in the event of a single cable fault could slightly exceed the limitations recommended in the standard, without any significant decrease in the integrity of the system.
Performance levels and limitations may need to be quantified so that the required recommendations are expressed numerically. These values quoted are often arbitrary.
Values are often based on well-established and proven custom and practice, or on the judgement of experts. While they are, therefore, generally applicable, rigid adherence to them may not be appropriate in every case, nor is it the case that minor variations need necessarily have any significant effect.
Some examples of arbitrary values include, but are not restricted to, the following:
The maximum size of a zone
The maximum area of protection disabled in the event of specified fault conditions
The maximum size of open areas in public buildings above which duplication of sounder circuits is recommended;
The furthest travel distance to the nearest manual call point
The greatest area of coverage of an automatic fire detector
Lowest sound pressure levels dB(A)
Shortest time duration of standby power supplies;
Note the parameters for the use of standard and enhanced fire resisting cables. Restrictions exist for the use of the standard cable.
E.g. Where the standard recommends that no one need travel further then 45m to reach the nearest manual call point, a competent person might judge that, in a particular building, a distance of 47m is acceptable because, perhaps, this led to the most appropriate locations for the manual call points.
E.g. In an office building, it may be considered that sound pressure levels of 57dB(A) are acceptable in a number of cellular offices, as to achieve the 60dB(A) recommended by the standard, would necessitate the fitting of a greater number of sounders (and hence increase the costs), when the difference of only 3dB is only just perceptible to the occupiers.
Variations from the recommendations of BS 5839 Part 1 2002 within a design proposal should be clearly identified, so that they are obvious to any party from whom approval of the specification or design proposal could be sought, such as the end user, purchaser, enforcing authority or insurer.
Variations identified or proposed during installation or commissioning, but not clearly identified in the design document, should be documented, (other than in the case of errors or "snags" for which rectification is proposed), for subsequent approval.
N.B. It is not intended to imply that it is the responsibility of the installer or commissioning engineer to verify or certificate compliance of the system design with the standard.
If any variations are identified by an installer or commissioning engineer, particularly variations related to circumstances that might not have been known to the designer (e.g. structural features of the building that affect detector number or siting), they should be documented for referral to the designer, user or purchaser for agreement or action.
All variations should be agreed amongst the interested parties and should be listed in the relevant system certificate.
Responsible Persons Manual 2003
Although your fire alarm system incorporates a high degree of monitoring, so that faults are indicated automatically, it is still necessary for you "The responsible person" to ensure that all fault indications that appear on the panel are identified so that you can take appropriate action. The importance of regular testing being carried out is to ensure that there has not been any minor or major system failure.
The routine testing of the alarm system also provides an opportunity for all the occupants of the building to become familiar with the alarm and the signals that it produces. If your alarm has staged signal that give both an "Alert" and an "Evacuate" alarm, both signals should be operated when each test is carried out to ensure that the occupants are aware of the existence of both signals and their different meanings.
Recommended for testing by the user.
The applicable recommendations are:
1 If the audibility of the warning device could go unnoticed, a visual inspection of the panel indications should be carried out daily. Any fault needs to be attended to. These inspections do not need to be recorded.
1 One manual call point should be activated.
2 A different point should be used so that all points are operated in sequence.
3 This test needs to be recorded in the Fire Logbook as well as the call point number.
4 Ensure that the panel receives the signal and activates the sounder circuits and if a monitoring station is used that a signal is received. Don't forget to inform the monitoring station before testing the alarm.
5 The weekly test should be carried out at approximately the same time each week. Occupants must be aware of the test times and report any instances of poor audibility.
6 The audible alarm should not sound for more than one minute. Should the sounders activate at the normal test time for more than one minute, the employees should treat the alarm as a true activation.
7 If a shift rota is used that may result in some employees not being present when the tests are carried out, then additional tests need to be carried out so that those employees become familiar with the alarm signals.
8 Voice alarm systems should be tested weekly as recommended in BS 5839-8.
1 If a generator is used as a power supply backup, a simulated power failure on load needs to be carried out for at least 1 hour, following the manufacturers recommendations.
2 Fuel tanks need to be topped up.
3 Oil and coolant levels need to be checked.
4 If the generator used vented batteries, they need to be checked for electrolyte level, and any corrosion of the terminals.
5 The person carrying out these tests needs to be competent and trained in all aspects of the safe operation of the equipment.
Alarms FAQ 2
Inspection and Servicing
It is essential that the fire alarm system is subject to periodic inspection and servicing so that unrevealed faults are identified, preventive measures can be taken to ensure the continued reliability of the system, false alarm problems are identified and suitably addressed, and that the user is made aware of any changes to the building that affect the protection afforded by the system.
A competent person with specialist knowledge of fire detection and alarm systems, including knowledge of the causes of false alarms, and sufficient information regarding the system, should carry out periodic inspection and servicing. This will normally be an outside fire alarm servicing organization; care should be taken to ensure that, if, for example, in-house employees are used for this task, they have equivalent competence to the technicians of a typical fire alarm servicing organization.
Quarterly Inspection of Vented Batteries
A competent Person in battery installation technology should examine all vented batteries for good connections as well as the electrolyte levels for correct specific gravity and if required, top up as necessary.
NOTE: Many large premises and sites have in-house maintenance personnel who are competent to carry out these inspections.
Recommendations for Six-Monthly Inspection and Test of The System
The following work should be carried out by a competent person every six months.
If this recommendation is not implemented, it should be considered that the system is no longer compliant with this Part of BS 5839-1.
1 The alarm system logbook should be checked to ensure that any faults recorded have received appropriate attention.
2 A visual inspection should be carried out to check for any structural or occupancy changes have affected the compliance of the system with the recommendations of BS5829 Pt1 for the siting of manual call points, automatic fire detectors and fire alarm devices. Particular care should be taken to verify whether:
a) All break glass call points remain unobstructed and conspicuous.
b) Any new exits made without the provision of an adjacent break glass call point.
c) Any new or relocated partitions have been erected within 500mm horizontally of any
automatic fire detector.
d) Any items stacked to within 300mm of ceilings.
e) A clear space of 500mm is maintained below each automatic fire detector.
f) Any changes to the occupancy or use of an area that makes the existing detector unsuitable
for detection of fire or prone to unwanted alarms.
3 The records of any false alarms should be checked. The rate of false alarms during the previous 12 months should be recorded. Action taken in respect of false alarms recorded should comply with the recommendations of the standard. (More than 4%)
4 Batteries and their connections should be examined and load tested (other than within radio-linked systems), to ensure that they are in good serviceable condition and not likely to fail before the next service visit. Vented batteries see above.
5 The fire alarm functions and indications should be checked by the operation of at least one detector or manual call point on each zone. Enter all details in the log book indicating which devices have been used for these tests.
6 Check all visual indicators for correct operation.
7 Check all signaling to the receiving center and all types of transmission such as fire and faults. Confirm signal receipt at the receiving station.
8 Any ancillary functions that are fitted should be tested.
9 Simulate faults to check the indicators function correctly.
10 Check printers if fitted function and are readable and that there is sufficient consumables fitted to last till the next service.
11 Radio frequencies should be checked and serviced as per the manufacturers recommendations.
12 All recommendations of the equipment manufacturers should be carried out.
13 On completion of the service, any outstanding defects are to be reported to the responsible person, the system log book updated and a servicing certificate should issued as BS5839 Annex G.
Annual Inspection and Test of the System
In addition to the above six monthly service the following work is to be carried out every year.
This work listed below may be carried out over the course of two six-monthly service visits.
1 The switching mechanism of every break glass call point should be tested, either by removal of a frangible element, insertion of a test key or operation of the device as it would be operated in the event of fire.
2 All automatic fire detectors should be examined, as far as practicable, to ensure that they have not been damaged or painted. Then every detector should be test-operated. The tests used need prove only that the detectors are connected to the system, are operational and are capable of responding to the phenomena they are designed to detect; they need not prove the sensitivity of the detector.
3 Every heat detector should be operated by means of a suitable heat source, unless operation of the detector in this manner would then necessitate replacement of part or all of the sensing element (e.g. as in fusible link point detectors or non-integrating line detectors).
NOTE The source of heat should not have the potential to ignite a fire, live flames should not be used, and special equipment might be necessary in explosive atmospheres.
4 Smoke detectors should be operated by a method that confirms that smoke can enter the detector chamber and produce a fire alarm signal such as simulated smoke or suitable aerosols. Use of a test button or test magnet, does not satisfy this recommendation.
5 Smoke beam detectors should be operated by introducing signal attenuation between the transmitter and receiver, either by use of an optical filter, smoke or simulated smoke.
6 Aspirating fire detection systems should be tested as described in BS5839 pt1 2002 clause 45.4d. with each hole, or group of holes, in the pipework of the system treated as a smoke detector.
7 Carbon monoxide fire detectors should be operated by a method that confirms that carbon monoxide can enter the detector chamber and produce a fire alarm signal (e.g. by use of apparatus that generates carbon monoxide or a gas that has a similar effect on the electro-chemical cell as carbon monoxide). The manufacturer's guidance on suitable test gases should be followed
WARNING Carbon monoxide is a highly toxic gas, and suitable precautions should be taken in its use.
8 Flame detectors should be operated by a method that confirms that the detector will respond to a suitable frequency of radiation and produce a fire alarm signal. The guidance of the manufacturer on testing of detectors should be followed.
9 Analogue fire detection systems that enable detector sensitivity to be determined at the control and indicating equipment, should verify that detector sensitivity is within the normal range specified by the manufacturer.
10 Multi-sensor detectors should be operated by a method that confirms that products of combustion in the vicinity of the detector can reach the sensors and that a fire signal can be produced as appropriate. The guidance of the manufacturer for the test procedure by which the detector can be test-operated effectively should be followed.
11 All fire alarm devices should be checked for correct operation. It should be confirmed that visual fire alarm devices are not obstructed from view and that their lenses are clean.
12 All unmonitored, permanently illuminated filament lamp indicators at control and indicating equipment should be replaced.
13 Radio signal strengths in radio-linked alarm systems should be checked for adequate strength.
14 A visual inspection should be made to confirm that all readily accessible cable fixings are secure and undamaged.
15 All further annual checks and tests recommended by the manufacturer of the control and indicating equipment and other components of the system should be carried out.
16 On completion of the work, any outstanding defects should be reported to the responsible person and a record of the inspection and test should be made on the servicing certificate.
From time to time the fire alarm system is likely to require non-routine attention, including special maintenance. Non-routine maintenance includes:
1 A special inspection of an existing fire alarm system when a new servicing organization takes over servicing the system
2 Repair, faults or damage.
3 Modification to take account of extensions, alterations, changes in occupancy or false alarms.
4 Action to address an unacceptable rate of false alarms. More than 4%
Inspection and test of the system following a fire.
Special inspection on appointment of a new servicing organization
The following are applicable:
1 When a new servicing company takes over the servicing arrangements for an existing alarm, a special inspection should be carried out, all existing records should be studied, to obtain sufficient information so that a documented system is effective for servicing of the alarm.
2 Major areas of non-compliance with BS5839 should be documented and identified to the responsible person. Classification of a non-compliance as major is subjective, but the following non-compliances should be regarded as major:
NB Non-compliances need to be rectified. This is a matter for the user to determine, based on the advice of the alarm company, the enforcing authorities, the insurer and any third party advisers engaged by the user.
A An inadequate number of call points.
B Inadequate provision of fire detection for the Category of system that the system was designed to meet.
C Sound levels that fail to meet dB levels.
D Standby power supplies that fail to meet the required backup.
NB Systems that incorporate no standby supply breach the Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996 .
E Cables with fire resistance that fails to comply.
F Monitoring of circuits that do not have correct zone wiring.
G Connections that do not comply with electrical safety recommendations.
H Exposure to, or experience of, false alarms, such as to preclude compliance with
section three of part 1 2002.
3 If no logbook is available for enabling compliance with the standard, a suitable logbook should be provided by the servicing Company.
Recommendations for arrangements for repair of faults or damage
1 When a fire alarm maintenance company carries out maintenance, there must be an agreement for emergency call out. Any variation from the recommendations of this Part of BS 5839 in respect of maintenance arrangements should be recorded in the system logbook.
2 The name and telephone number of the maintenance company should be prominently displayed at the main control and indicating equipment.
3 The user must record all faults or damage in the system logbook, and should arrange for repair to be carried out as soon as possible.
Modifications to the system
This can arise for a number of reasons. For example:
Extension of the alarm due to a risk assessment or a new extension.
2 Change of detector type as a result of changes in occupancy or the occurrence of false alarms.
Re-siting or increase in the number of detectors to take account of changes in the layout of the building.
Reconfiguration of the system (in hardware, software or both) to change the cause and effect logic in order to facilitate filtering of false alarms. Since modification of a system effectively involves an element of re-design, responsibility for modification of a system should rest with a person who has a sufficient degree of design competence. Even simple modifications can give rise to the need for significant re-testing of the system. This isparticularly the case in software- controlled systems. For example, a software change to facilitate a different cause and effect for a single automatic fire detector can result in the introduction of software errors that affect the operation of entirely non-related parts of the system.
4 It is possible, in some systems, for modification of the system configuration to be carried out remotely, via a modem. Great care should be taken, regardless of whether modifications are undertaken on site or remotely, to ensure that:
A That the system continues to comply in full with Part of BS 5839, or that existing non-compliances are not made more non-compliant; if new variations are introduced, it should be ensured that a new certificate, reflecting the variation, is issued.
B Suitable tests are carried out at the protected premises to confirm that, after modification, the system operates as intended and that errors have not resulted in changes to other parts of the system.
C The "as fitted" drawings and other records are updated as appropriate.
D Details of the modification are documented and provided to the responsible person.
In many cases, although the modifications may be carried out remotely by the maintenance organization, it will be appropriate for a competent person from the maintenance organization to visit the premises before the modification is carried out, to confirm the validity of the modification and consider its effect on compliance with this Part of BS 5839. It may also be necessary to visit the premises to undertake certain tests immediately after the modification has been carried out.
Recommendations applicable to all modification work
The following recommendations are applicable to all modification work, regardless of whether it is carried out on site or remotely:
1 Responsibility for modification of a fire alarm system should rest, ultimately, with a person who is competent in at least the basic principles of fire alarm system design and is conversant with BS 5839.
2 The responsible person should be aware of, and agree to, any modifications proposed for the system. Where appropriate, modifications should also be subject to the agreement of the enforcing authorities and/or insurers.
3 All components, circuits, system operations and site-specific software functions known to be affected by the modifications should be tested for correct operation following the modifications.
4 In addition to the tests recommended, the following tests should be carried out to ensure that there is no adverse effect on the overall system:
A If one or more devices have been added or removed from a circuit, at least one other device on the same circuit should be tested.
B If the control equipment has been modified, at least one device on every circuit should be tested.
C If any additional load has been placed on the system, tests should be carried out to prove that the rating of the power supply unit and the capacity of the standby batteries remain adequate.
D If software has been modified, further random testing of other parts of the system should be carried out to ensure that seemingly unrelated parts of the system have not been adversely affected.
E On completion of the modifications, all "as fitted" drawings and other relevant system records should be updated as appropriate.
F When commissioning of the work and completion of the tests, a modification certificate must be issued, confirming that the work has been carried out in accordance with the recommendations of this Part of BS 5839-1, or identifying any variations.
Action to address an unacceptable rate of false alarms
1 An investigation to determine the reason for the unacceptable rate of false alarms should be carried out and modifications made to the system.
2 Following such modifications, the system should continue to comply with BS 5839-1.
Recommendations for inspection and test of the system following any fire
As soon as possible after any fire:
1 Every manual call point, automatic fire detector and fire alarm device that may have been affected by the fire should be inspected and tested.
2 A visual examination and suitable tests should be carried out on any other part of the system that lies within the fire area and that might have been damaged by the fire (e.g. power supplies, control equipment and cable). Where there is evidence of damage, suitable action should be taken.
3 Circuits external to the control and indicating equipment that could have been affected by the fire should be tested for correct operation.
4 On completion of the work, any defects found should be recorded in the system logbook, and the responsible person appointed by the user should be notified accordingly.
This document is an abridged version of BS 5839 pt1 2002 and should be used for guidance purposes only and is not a substitute for reading the standard, which should be purchased from British Standards